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CHP Equipment

  • DER Equipment and Application. This is a PowerPoint presentation covering the topics of CHP, generation technologies, storage, thermal distribution and applications.
  • Equipment Options and Application Alternatives. This paper provides an overview of a broad range of electricity-generating equipment and thermal equipment including both heating and cooling.
  • Switchgear Evaluation. This paper is an evaluation of switchgear by the Alaska Energy Authority and Marsh Creek LLC of switchgear used for small (250 kW to 1 MW) mini-grid systems in villages in Alaska. The switchgear connects stand alone power production to village electricity needs.
  • CHP Case Studies – Saving Money and Increasing Security. This article by Capstone Turbine Corporation provides an overview of microturbines and gives examples of their use.
  • Washington State Pulp and Paper Mill Boilers: Current and Potential Renewable Energy Production
  • Reciprocating Engines CHP Technology Fact Sheet Series, August 2016 - Reciprocating engines are well suited to a variety of distributed generation applications and are used throughout industrial, commercial, and institutional facilities for power generation and CHP.
  • Microturbines CHP Technology Fact Sheet Series, August 2016 - Microturbines are used in distributed generation applications due to their flexibility in connection methods, their ability to be stacked in parallel to serve larger loads, their ability to provide stable and reliable power, and their low emissions compared to other technologies. Microturbines are well suited to be used in CHP applications because the exhaust heat can either be recovered in a heat recovery boiler, or the hot exhaust gases can be used directly.
  • Gas Turbine Technology Fact Sheet Series, August 2016 - Gas turbines are used extensively for CHP, particularly at industrial and large institutional sites. For CHP applications, gas turbines typically have favorable economics in sizes greater than five MW. Gas turbines are well suited for industrial and institutional CHP applications because the high temperature gas turbine exhaust can either be used to generate high pressure steam or used directly for heating or drying.
  • Fuel Cell Technology Fact Sheet Series, August 2016 - Fuel cells use an electrochemical process to convert the chemical energy in a fuel to electricity. In contrast to reciprocating engines and gas turbines, fuel cells generate electricity without combusting the fuel. For stationary power, fuel cells are used for distributed generation (electricity only) and are also configured for combined heat and power.
  • Steam Turbine CHP Technology Fact Sheet Series, August 2016 - Steam turbines are a mature technology and have been used since the 1880s for electricity production. Most of the electricity generated in the United States is produced by steam turbines integrated in central station power plants. In addition to central station power, steam turbines are also commonly used for combined heat and power (CHP). Steam turbines are well suited to medium and large-scale industrial and institutional applications where inexpensive fuels are available.

CHP Technology

CHP Market Potential

  • Montana Woody Biomass Utilization Strategy (November 2011) The Montana Woody Biomass Utilization Strategy has two parts: 1) An assessment of biomass utilization opportunities; and 2) A strategy for sustaining and enhancing utilization. CHP is found on pages 18-19. Strategies including CHP are found on pages 23-25
  • Washington Dairies and Digesters (October 2011) Report on dairies and digesters of Washington by the Washington Department of Agriculture. This report provides details about Washington’s dairy farms, profiles of the six operating digesters, and other valuable information, including a map of the dairies and digesters. For a map that shows the utility service territories of the dairies and digesters of Washington, click here.
  • State of Washington Clean Energy Opportunity: Technical Market Potential for CHP (August 2010) What is the technical potential for CHP in Washington? The state of Washington has significant clean energy technical market potential – well over 4000 MW! CHP provides significant energy efficiency improvements and economic benefits as compared to stand-alone power generation.
  • Clean Heat and Power in the Pacific Northwest: Market Assessment (August 2004) This report provides: 1) A comprehensive review of current CHP capacity in the Pacific Northwest including a database by each state; 2) A review of the economic and technical market potential for additional CHP; 3) A review of barriers and incentives to CHP; and 4) Recommended actions to increase CHP deployment.
  • This Combined Heat and Power White Paper (January, 2006) was prepared for the Western Governors' Association (WGA) at the invitation of the WGA's Clean and Diversified Energy Advisory Committee.

CHP Finance

CHP and Natural Gas

  • 2013 Outlook  – Annual publication put out by the Northwest Gas Association.
  • Natural Gas Price Forecast (July 2013) The Northwest Power and Conservation Council forecasts fuel prices including natural gas. Forecasted prices are provided to 2035 in 2012 constant dollars in this update. Wellhead, Sumas gate, West-side delivered and East-side delivered price information is provided on page 11. This information is useful for analysis of proposed natural gas CHP systems.
  • Comparing Pipes and Wires (March 2004) This study is a capital cost analysis of energy transmission via natural gas pipelines and overhead electric wires.

CHP Interconnection and Impact on the Electrical Grid

CHP Legal, Institutional, and Regulatory Topics

  • CHP Legal, Institutional and Regulatory Guidebook. This guidebook provides a detailed but not exhaustive review of the legal, institutional and regulatory subject matters surrounding CHP. The guidebook is available on CD from the Northwest CHP Technical Assistance Partnership.

CHP Polices and Barrier Reduction

CHP and the Environment

  • Clean Energy Roadmap: Washington State (March 2012) – This report by the Cascade Power Group outlines three scenarios to help meet our state’s energy demands and emissions reduction goals by 2035 while decreasing total energy consumption. It is also designed to complement the 2012 State Energy Strategy (Executive Summary).
  • Output-Based Regulations: Best Practices, Joel Bluestein, ICF International (January 2009) Discussion of what Output-Based Regulation is, the benefits of it, how to implement it and who has already implemented it.
  • Output Based New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), Christian Fellner, U.S. EPA (January 2009) Discusses original standards and amendments to NSPS and the NSPS for three different stationary source technologies
  • Output-based Allocation Methodology under CT’s NOx Budget Programs & CHP Set-Aside under CT’s RGGI Rule, Chris Nelson, CT DEP (January 2009) Discusses evolution of Connecticut’s allocation methodology for their NBP’s and CHP Set-Aside under their RGGI Rule; Provides comparison chart for NOx allocation methodology; CO2 allocations; Distribution of CO2 allowances; and EPS’s in Connecticut
  • Factsheet: EPA Combined Heat and Power Partnership - Draft (July 2011) EPA and CHP Partnerships’ factsheet on why output-based environmental regulations are an effective policy to support a clean energy supply. Lists the benefits of using more efficient combustion technologies, ways to incorporate output-based approaches into air regulatory approaches and which states have established OBR’s. WA Air Emission Regulations (RCWs) CO2 mitigation: 80.70 RCW, and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: 80.80 RCW
  • Output-Based Regulations: A Handbook for Air Regulators (August 2004) Handbook put out by EPA’s Green Power Partnership and the CHP Partnership; Discusses trends supporting increased use of Output-based regulations (OBR’s), what is an OBR, why adopt them, how to develop your own, and examples of OBR’s.
  • Clean Energy-Environment Guide to Action  (April 2006) Policies, Best Practices, and Action. Steps for States EPA’s document which includes descriptions of output-based regulations, their objectives, benefits, and how states can develop their own (see Chapter 5). Gives state examples.
  • Output-Based Regulations: Best Practices Option for CHP (July 2011) Prepared by Neeharika Naik-Dhungel (Program Manager, US EPA CHP Partnership), this presentation includes an overview of CHP Performance Standards as well as examples to various state output-based standards.
  • Staff Research Brief – Governor’s Energy Policy Council  (2006) Energy Policy Brief for Georgia on output-based regulations, why OBR’s are relevant to Georgia’s state energy strategy, how to implement an output-based emission standard. Although this brief was created for Georgia’s energy policy, it presents relevant information for every state.
  • Example: Connecticut (January 2005) Connecticut’s regulations for distributed generators that became effective in 2005. Although this document provides the regulations for owners/operators of distributed generators of Connecticut, elements of it can be used as a guide for operators and/or owners of distributed generators in other states. Provided as example only. Always check recent state regulations.
  • Example: Massachusetts (October 2013) Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection Regulations 310 CMR 7.00 Air Pollution Control. Sections 7.27 and 7.28 discuss NOx Allowance and Trading Program Regulations that incorporate the Public Benefit Set-Aside Amendments. Discusses purpose and scope of the program, definitions of terms, allowance allocations, etc. Provided as example only. Always check recent state regulations.
  • Report/Rationale/Status: The Regulatory Assistance Project (September 2008) Discusses generation performance standards in the U.S. electric sector; Provides historical context for state and local air quality control programs, rationale for output-based allocations and emission standards, development of the standards, what the future of output-based emission standards is, and advantages of them for China.

Climate Change and Carbon Credits

Cooling, Heating, and Power for Buildings

  • Interconnection Tool Kit for Distributed Generation The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, the Cooperative Research Network, the National Rural Utilities Cooperative Finance Corp. and Energy Co-Opportunity have worked together to develop a number of resources to help electric cooperatives address the legal, economic and technical issues raised by consumer-owned generation.
  • ORNL BCHP software

District Energy Feasibility Studies

Energy Efficiency

  • Unlocking Energy Efficiency in the U.S. Economy (July 2009) -- This report by McKinsey Global Energy provides a detailed review of energy efficiency opportunities in the U.S. economy. It includes a 4 page assessment of the potential as well as the existing barriers for CHP in the U.S. The CHP section is on pages 86 – 89 and on pages 93-94 CHP’s fit with carbon reduction strategies are shown. Waste heat recovery potentials in the industrial sector are shown on page 79.

Manufacturers / Equipment Suppliers / Project Developers

Note: No formal evaluation of the companies or organizations identified in this database has been performed, therefore there is no endorsement, implied or otherwise, made by the identification of a company or organization in this database list. As is normal, prior to entering into any contract or conducting significant business with any company or organization, it is recommended that a prudent investigation of that company or organization be made.

  Name Product or Service
  2G Cenergy Project developer
Alcor Alcor Project developer
  Alphabet Energy Waste-heat-to-power
  Ameresco Project developer
  American DG Energy Project developer
  Broad USA Absorption chillers
  Burns & McDonnell Project developer
  Calnetix Power Solutions Waste-heat-to-power
Capstone Turbine Capstone Turbine Microturbines
  Cascade Power Group Project Developer
Caterpillar Caterpillar Reciprocating engines
  Chevron Energy Solutions Project developer
  Cummins Reciprocating engines
  Echogen Power Systems Waste-heat-to-power
  FuelCell Energy Fuel cells
GE Energy GE Energy Turbines, reciprocating engines, waste-heat-to-power
  Generac Reciprocating engines
Horizon Power Systems Horizon Power Systems Intermountain distributor for Capstone microturbines
  Integral Power Waste-heat-to-power and CHP project developer
  Jenbacher (GE) Reciprocating engines
KGRA KGRA Waste-heat-to-power
NRG NRG Project developer
  Onsite Power Systems Project developer
Ormat Ormat Waste-heat-to-power systems
  Pareto Energy District energy
  Pratt and Whitney (United Technologies) Turbines
  Primary Energy Waste-heat-to-power and CHP project developer
Recycled Energy Development Recycled Energy Development Waste-heat-to-power and CHP project developer
  RobustEnergy Project developer
  SepPro Systems Thermally-driven aqua ammonia absorption refrigeration chillers
Solar Turbines (Caterpillar) Solar Turbines (Caterpillar) Turbines
  TAS - Turbine Air Systems Waste-heat-to-power
  UTC Power (United Technologies) Fuel cells
  Veolia Energy NA Project developer
  VA:W Energy Audits
  Waukesha (GE) Reciprocating engines
Wheeler Power Systems Wheeler Power Systems Intermountain distributor for Caterpillar engines


  • Many of the equipment manufacturers and suppliers will also develop projects. Many of the project developers will also own and operate a recycled energy system on behalf of a customer.
  • Companies with logos shown have supported the U.S. DOE Intermountain CHP Technical Assistance Partnership, either financially or as an active participant in our advisory group.
  • Not listed? Contact Us

Utility Rates

Waste Heat Recovery-to-Power